Valerian officinalis is a persistent and highly productive field crop. Adult plants or ingrained seedlings easily tolerate prolonged drought. Its seedlings are not afraid of a small low temperature, plants easily tolerate frosts under cover.
The seed sprouts at an alternating temperature of 20 and 30 degrees in about two weeks. Two weeks later, an outlet of real leaves is formed, which grows until the autumn and then dies. In subsequent years, the plant gives shoots as soon as the snow melts, bud formation occurs about 1-1.5 months, flowering after about 2 months, and the maturation of the seeds can take up to 4 months.
Soil preparation is similar to other tilled crops. But do not forget that with deep plowing, the root system develops much better, and cleaning takes place with less loss. For winter crops, it is necessary to plow the soil a month before planting and fertilize 2 buckets of compost, 35 g of superphosphate and 10 g of potassium saltpeter per 1 m2. The soil must be leveled and well moistened. Planting is recommended in areas that are well lit. Predecessors can be vegetables or grains, which require many doses of fertilizers. The land must be cleared of root weeds.
Before sowing seeds it is necessary to sustain 15 minutes in a solution of manganese (at the rate of 1 g of crystals per 100 g of water). In light soil it is necessary to seal the seed to a depth of 2.5 cm, to loam – to 1 cm. Winter sowing is not closing to a depth of 2.5 cm.
It is necessary to sow that between the plants there is a distance of about 25 cm, and between the beds – 60 cm. Seeds must be taken fresh, old ones have poor germination. At a high temperature and sufficient humidity shoots appear about 10 days. Further care consists in 2 manual weeding. If the seedlings grow close to each other, then they need to be weeded out. Under autumn it is necessary to fertilize the soil with 35 g superphosphate and until the cold the plant forms a rosette of leaves and a strongly developed root system.
For 2 years in the early spring, it is necessary to fertilize the area with valerian nitrogen fertilizers. The plant will begin to bloom already in June, and in July the seeds will start to form. To obtain the same large roots, it is necessary to cut buds during their active growth. It is in this case that at the end of the second year it will be possible to obtain a high yield.
In the autumn, the rhizomes are excavated with forks, after which they are washed in running water, all excess, thick roots are cut crosswise. During the first two days they wither, and then dried at a temperature of 45 degrees. The seed ripens gradually over a period of 45 days. When appearing in the inflorescence of ripened seeds, they must be cut with a stem, tied in buns and hung to keep up.
This culture is susceptible to winter scoop, valerian or beetroot aphids, beetroot bug, meadow moth. The plant is susceptible to such diseases as: powdery mildew, ramullariosis, rust and fusariosis. The most complex disease for this culture is white rot, which kills infected plants. Prevention of pests is usually helped, and to combat rot, you can treat the seeds before planting with a mixture of Fitosporin-M biofungicide.
If the following rules are observed, most diseases will not affect valerian: – In one place it is not recommended to plant valerian several times in a row; – At the first appearance of the symptoms of spotting, it is necessary to raise the dose of mineral supplements; – The soil must be dripped with the turnover of the formation – in this case a possible infection is found at a depth and perishes.