The breed of cows “Krasnaya Gorbatovskaya” was artificially bred in the 1800s. in the Gorbatov Uyezd (now this is the Nizhny Novgorod region) by mating the local Priokskaya breed of livestock with representatives of the Tyrolean breed
The Tyrolean breed is distinguished by the high quality of milk, so the Tyrolean bulls were brought for a long time from Southern Austria for breeding. As a result of such actions, a cross between the Tyrolean breed and local breeds appeared, of which the most productive was a cross between animals along the banks of the Oka River. Over time, the breed of red Gorbatov cows
Among the artificially derived breeds of cows, this one occupies a leading position in terms of quality and quantity of dairy products. This breed of livestock is well adapted to the natural conditions of central Russia. Animals are resistant to many diseases, such as brucellosis, tuberculosis and leukemia
The animals of the described breed differ in good physical parameters. They are tightly built, low, the trunk is quite long. The head of the individuals is small with a wide and short neck. Both bulls and cows are characterized by a broad chest, strong back and an elevated sacrum. The tail is rather long, wide, situated high enough. The color of the breed is red with many different shades, sometimes even with white patches on the belly. The horns are usually white with black tips. The udders of the cows are small with fairly developed lobes, medium sized nipples, conical shape
The adult cow weighs about 480 kg. The weight of an adult male is usually about 850 kg. The height of such animals is on the average 120 cm, the length of the body is 153 cm. The legs of the animals are low and large in girth (50 cm). The weight of the newborn calves is about 25 kg. During the first six months of life, the weight of the animal rises 6-7 times and is 155-160 kg. Annual milk yields of cows of red Gorbatov breed are 2900-3350 kg. The fat content in it is usually more than 4.0%. In addition, milk is rich in protein, its specific gravity is 3.5-3.8%. It should be noted that the amount of milk produced in a year of cows of this breed can reach 7000 kg. In addition, the meat of these animals is of good quality, but it is considered fat enough. During fattening, the young grow fast (weight gain sometimes reaches 1 kg).
Preservation of the number of animals of this breed acceptable for breeding is due to the thoroughbred breeding of the gene pool. The main part of the cows of the Gorbat breed, to this day, is located in the Nizhny Novgorod region, where the Bogorodsky state farm is located, in which they are deliberately breeding this cattle breed, since its representatives differ in the quality of dairy products. This is necessary in order to increase the number of livestock, which since the end of the 1990s has decreased and now amounts to only 0.08% of the total number of dairy animals in Russia.
Red Gorbatov breed of cows