The elder is a perennial shrub or tree with a height of 3-10 m. The elder berry yields fruits – black berries with a purple hue. There are two types of elder – black and red. The first species can be eaten and used as a medicine, the second kind is poisonous, its use is fraught with poisoning. On garden plots are grown more often black elder.
Elder bush can grow without much courtship to 15 years, but in this case, after this period, you need to completely change the land and bushes can grow elongated, shapeless. Buzina, like many garden plants, requires annual pruning. This is done for three reasons:
1. To protect the bush from frost. If you do not cut the elderberry, then with the onset of frost, the branches themselves break off, this will serve as a kind of natural pruning. But such way of courtship for a plant is inadmissible, as with each time it will become weaker.
2. With radical pruning of elderberry, which implies shortening to 10-15 cm of bush, a new stage of growth takes place and the tree grows more voluminous and stronger.
3. Every 1-2 years you need to do a small pruning of the plant, which will positively affect the appearance. But the disadvantage is that after such an action within a year there will be no fruits.
Correct pruning of elderberry
Pruning is best done in winter in the resting period or early spring, before the active phase of flowering. Caring for young bushes is necessary in the first year of life. In this period of flowers is very small. When the tree is planted, you need to cut the shoots to half, which will give the best growth. In a year it is necessary to remove dry and weak shoots. Trimming is also necessary for root branches.
That the plant is not sick, you need to cover every slice with a garden saver, which can be purchased at a specialized store. In the case when the spring of the elder grows poorly, it is worth nourishing the soil with mineral fertilizers.
Every year it is necessary to model the shape of a bush, it is oval, neat in nature.
Every 3 years you need to perform a complete pruning, that is, leave a “stump” up to 10 cm tall. This allows you to rejuvenate the plant, improve the fruit.
Do not forget that the elder needs active moistening of the soil. In the hot summer, you should water the bushes once a week and use a bucket of water for each tree. For a young plant in a dry period, more frequent watering is needed. Do not dry the soil.