The species received this name from its homeland – the Kholmogory hills, which are located in the Arkhangelsk region. Prior to Peter I in this region, peasants bred an ordinary milk cow. Since the opening of Europe in this region began to penetrate European entrepreneurs and investors. In 1694 international trade began to develop in this region
Foreigners came to the Arkhangelsk region to bring items of household and domestic animals. At the beginning of the 17th century a Dutch breed got into the territory of the Arkhangelsk region and from that moment local breeders began to cross it with ordinary cows. The process of the evolution of the Kholmogory breed will last for 200 years. Officially, this breed was recognized in 1938
The appearance of the Kholmogory breed
Over the years, the local Burenka and the Dutch cow exerted a strong influence on each other. The new breed absorbed the best qualities of its parents. She became taller, more massive and stronger. The udder and the amount of milk given also increased. As for health, the severe northern weather conditions had a positive effect on the immunity of the Kholmogory breed, it became noticeably stronger
The main parameters of the cow are:
- The head is no different from the rest of the cows, has an average size and a long thin neck. The constitution has increased. Biologists noted that the Kholmogory cow has significantly expanded its bone, so it quickly accumulates muscle mass. The chest in the girth is 197-202 cm, the depth of the chest does not exceed 73 cm. It is necessary to note the underdeveloped system of subsidence. Although it is time and is considered a milking, but the udder of this cow is not sufficiently developed. Strong limbs.
Productivity of the breed Owners of Kholmogory plants continue work on improving the breed. They pay a lot of money to biologists for increasing the fat content of milk and improving the quality of meat
With good care, the Kholmogory cow gives an average of 3000 liters of milk per year. With very good care, cow yield can increase to 4,500 liters per year, however, such cases are recorded only in individual farms. This breed gives a good milk with an average fat content of 3.5-3.8%. Today, biologists are working to increase the fat content of milk, they want to exceed the barrier of 4%
The rapid maturation of the Kholmogory cow can also be attributed to productivity. Cows have reached the reproductive age in two and a half years. At one time, one cow can lead no more than one calf. The weight of a newborn is 30 to 37 kg. With proper care, calves grow rapidly and in the first 6 months they gain more than 170 kg
In adulthood, cows have small sizes – 450-470 kg. Bulls grow to 800-900 kg. In individual farms, cows can grow up to 550 kg, and bulls weigh more than a ton. The income from the slaughter of a cow and a bull is small – about 50-55%. The maximum amount of pure meat that was obtained from this breed was 65% of the total body weight
Advantages and disadvantages of the breed
- Adaptability of the Kholmogory rocks. This cow perfectly adapts to any living conditions. They can live in cold northern and warm southern lands. Endurance. The cow is able to travel long distances in search of food. Strong immunity. Kholmogory cows are almost not sick, and if this happens, in most cases the disease passes by itself, without the intervention of a veterinarian.
Deficiencies of the rock are based on the generally accepted norms:
- Small milk as for the milk breed. Small size and low process of obtaining meat, both for meat breeds.
Kholmogory breed of cows