Farmers keep goats for both fluff and milk, and for the production of wool and meat. Therefore goats hammer and make skins. In this case, it is important to keep track of the goat’s fur throughout its life, combing and grooming so that the fur always remains shiny and smooth.
The process of skin processing is complex and requires special skills and abilities. Not every city has professionals who can work in this direction in a qualitative way. Many farmers have learned how to make skins on their own. At beginners, probably, at once it will not turn out, practice is necessary.
Skin with a goat should be removed with a single layer. To do this, the carcass of the animal is suspended and cut three times. The first and second sections are transverse, the third – longitudinal:
1. The incision is on the lower part, at the hind legs. From the end of the limb leads to the end of the other, through the anus. 2. The incision is on the sternum. From one forelimb, to the other. 3. Cut in the middle from the top of the throat to the tail, passing through the sternum, stomach, udder of the goat.
Then removing the skin, you need to pull it from the meat, starting from the neck. It is advisable to do this by hand, so as not to damage, with a knife you can occasionally help in difficult times. All fat should remain on the carcass. Carefully cut off the place in the anal passage and in the genitalia of the animal. Immediately after removing the skin, stretch it on a special frame, if it is not there, then simply lay it out on a flat surface, fur down, so it dries out and keeps the shape. If you left pieces of meat, scrape them with a knife. It is best to dress the skin immediately after removal, while it is warm and soft, but this possibility is not always, so it must be preserved.
The first method is dry-salted. To do this, sprinkle salt on the flat surface of the skin, along the entire perimeter. Fold in half leather to the skin and once again and remove the dried.
The second method is wet-salted. Also, as in the first case, spread the hide (skin) upwards, sprinkle it abundantly with salt, in those places where the skin is thickest, salt should be rubbed with gloves on. One skins put the second and do the same. Then put in a dark and cool place, for 2 – 3 days. Then skins to pour and curdle (as in the case with desalinization), salting skins should take about 7 days. Do not dry them under the sun or freeze. The temperature for drying should be about 20 degrees. It is important to salve the skins well, otherwise they may die, then the wool will fall out. During the drying time, the skin will become stiff. It will need to be softened.
The duration of this process is day 3, in pans and large vats. It is necessary to make the skin when the subcutaneous layer is removed, which is still on the skin. They use a scythe and a dead end. Skin is put skinned upwards, with an acute oblique scraping the entire top layer. The water for this process should be about 20 degrees. Calculate the portion of water can be as follows: the weight of the skin in a dry state is multiplied by 6. To accelerate the process of soaking and to prevent decay, use salt (about 50 g / 1 liter) or soda ash. Next, the pickling procedure, the skin is treated with a solution of sulfuric acid + salt (9 g of sulfuric acid per 1 liter of water and 60 g of salt per 1 liter of water). The water temperature is 25 degrees. Salt must be applied, otherwise the masdra will break down from the acid.
The process lasts about 12 hours. After the skin has dried, the tanning process begins. In the vat is added a solution (temperature of 35 degrees): 1 liter of boiled water, 3 grams of chromic alum, 10 g of sodium hyposulphite, 50 g of salt. Tanning lasts approximately 12 hours in a vat, then squeeze and spread on a flat surface for 7 hours. When the skin is dry, the fatting process begins. Prepare the mixture: 1 liter of boiled water – 500 gr. fat (mutton, pork); 50 gr. fish oil, 30ml of ammonia (10%). This emulsion should be applied to the skin all over the surface, it should be soaked for 7 hours. Skin stretched in length and width. In the end, comb the fur.