Since ancient times the maintenance of cattle the person arranged in a crib, which often adjoined to habitation. Such a device was practiced with the purpose of heating its own dwelling using the heat of animals. In the future, mankind began to erect separate rooms for livestock with fixation to a certain place of each animal. This content of cattle is called tied.
In today’s world, unbounded content becomes more popular. This method first found its application in beef cattle breeding, and is now widely used in the dairy sector of various farms.
Features of the content
The content of cows on farms with a loose system implies their free movement and an unhindered approach to the feeding troughs. Usually coarse fodder is placed under awnings in the territory of animal houses, and silage in the burlars on the areas intended for walking. And the area of walking grounds is taken away from the calculation of 10 square meters. m per animal. Walking areas, as a rule, are made with a hard surface, manure is cleaned every day. Cows are fed with the help of wooden or concrete group drinkers. Milking takes place in special rooms equipped with milking plants.
The herd of animals is usually divided into groups of 60 individuals, forming separately, taking into account the age and sex of the group of young animals, and taking into account the physiological state of the group of adult animals. Compared with the tethered content, the loose method allows placing cows with an increased number of 30% on the same area, and at the same time the feed consumption also increases.
In order to avoid injuring the animals with each other, the ends of the horns are sawn off approximately 4 cm, and calves undergo degreasing at the age of up to 10 days. Veterinary examination of cows with subsequent isolation of sick animals is also necessary.
Types of loose clothing
The loose content can be divided by type of technology into three types.
First: animals are located on three sites. Feeders are installed on the walking areas, in a separate section of the cows are milked, and they rest in rooms with a special deep litter, which creates a dry and soft bed.
The second type: feeding and milking animals in separate rooms, resting cows in special sections equipped with boxes.
The third kind: milking occurs in sections, rest as on non-replaceable litter, and in pits. Feeding is carried out at paddock areas from hay stores or from feeders with automatic leashes.
Re-equipment of premises for free-of-charge maintenance
The placement of cows without leashes on livestock farms can reduce the amount of material and human resources that are expended on animal maintenance. The effectiveness of this method is confirmed by the high profitability of dairy farms. Such organization of animal maintenance can be arranged not only on newly built farms, but also on converted existing livestock yards. Re-equipment is carried out depending on the weather conditions in the region and, first of all, those buildings that do not require high capital costs. In the premises stalls with feeding troughs are removed and a deep non-replaceable litter is built.
Undoubtedly, in the southern regions, the equipment of premises and grounds for unobtrusively keeping animals is less expensive. However, even in the northern regions, the introduction of this method gives excellent results. The increase in milk yield and profit justifies the investment of the necessary funds.
Free cattle maintenance