Apple tree is a capricious tree, with a lack of light, crowded branches and excessive amounts of it, it starts to bloom poorly, the fruits become small, acidic and often spoil directly on the tree. To avoid this, it’s enough to form the crown of the apple tree correctly, no branch or sheet should close the other and prevent the sunlight and fresh air from getting to the flowers and fruits
Experienced gardeners are well aware that even the best sort of apple can bring very little benefit if the crown of the tree will remain in its natural form. All the unloved sour-bitter fruits of wild apples have such an unpleasant taste precisely because of the absence of care by the crown
How to form the crown of an apple tree Apple tree is a tree plant that is well and clearly divided by gardeners into zones, after studying which each owner of an apple tree can form his crown independently. Thus, the zone from the ground to the first lower branches of a tree is called a barrel
The upper branches in their totality are called the crown, and its branches forming in the middle are called skeletal branches. Branches that grow from skeletal are semi-skeletal, in their turn they also grow in smaller branches, actually, called “overgrown”.
Young plants quickly grow, trying to be closer to light and sun, and therefore form a set of shoots that grow old, over the years reduce the rate of growth, preventing the formation of new branches. In horticultural practice, two methods are used to form the crown, designed to prevent everything that is described above:
1. Formation of a long-sparse crown;
2. Formation of the cup-shaped form.
The shape of a longitudinally sparse crown most of all resembles a natural one, since this method of crown formation provides for the arbitrary arrangement of branches on an apple tree, in groups of 2-3 branches on one level. Formation of the crown begins when the plant reaches the age of 1 year and lasts a lifetime
To form the crown, you need a centimeter, a pruner and a small nail file. A centimeter measures the distance from the ground to the lower branches, that is, the above-described stem. The height of the stem can not be less than 0.5 meters, a small height of the stem will become a source of inconvenience, since the branches that hang down will serve as an obstacle to normal tree care. Excessively high stem is also harmful to the garden, in winter the tree, not protected by branches, can freeze, and in the summer dry up
After the barrel is measured, and the excess branches are removed from it, the 0.3 meter is lifted upwards and thus the main part of the branches entering the first tier of the tree crown is formed. The branches growing above are cut off under a well developed kidney. At the bottom of the crown should not be more than 3 branches, cut at an angle necessary to create a visual vertical effect. Best of all, if in the middle there remains one main branch, around which the crown will be formed
After pruning the main branches, the branches located on the middle level are cut off, they should remain also no more than three. The highest branches are cut either completely or half, cutting off the top under the root is not recommended, it should remain and be the basis of the apple tree
Crown height should not exceed 3 meters. The optimal distance between the branches is 15 centimeters. Formation of the crown is an annual process, carried out in early spring
The long-sparse crown is the most common in apple orchards, but, nevertheless, the formation of a crown having a cup-like shape is quite acceptable. To form a crown of a similar shape, it is necessary to measure the trunk, leave the three main branches in the lower part of the trunk, but choose those that are pointed in different directions at an angle of 120 degrees
The central part of the tree is removed. A tree with a properly formed cup-shaped crown is divided into two distinct parts, each of which has its own strong branches that can bear abundant fruits. The downside of this formation of the crown is the risk of splitting the tree into parts in a severe thunderstorm, or under the influence of the gravity of the fruit. Such crowns are good for trees with a short fertile period.
Formation of the apple tree crown