Breed The Estonian domestic quail was obtained as a result of selection from three subspecies of quails: Japanese, English white and Pharaoh. As a result, with the crossing of breeds characterized by their high egg production (English white and Japanese quail) with meat (Pharaoh), a new variety has been obtained which advantageously combines the main positive qualities of the breeds crossed: – an increased survival rate, – a long life span, – a long period egg-laying. Breed The Estonian home quail was introduced into the official register of quail breeds in 1989 and is classified as egg-meat. Exterior of a bird. The quail of the Estonian breed in its exterior is distinguished by a more round body, in comparison with other representatives of this species, with shortened cervical and caudal divisions. Roundness of the trunk is given by a hump-shaped bend that is located from the frontal part of the back. The base color of the Quail of this breed is orange-brownish. The body is decorated with black and brown stripes. At the quails of the Estonian breed there are clearly expressed secondary sexual characteristics. Males are the owners of three ocher-white strips crowning the head, the zone under the beak and the cheeks are painted brownish, and the region of the goat-shaped process is yellow-brown. The large feathering of the wings has a dark brown color with bright stripes. Beak is brown with a clarified tip. The color of the metatarsal may vary from pale pink to yellowish gray. Derma around the cloacal aperture is light pink. The females of the Estonian quail are less brightly colored: feathers under the beak and cheeks are pale gray, the region of the goat-shaped process and the breast are brownish-gray with pronounced dark brown small spots. The beak is clarified, the pusa is pale pink, the derma around the cloacal aperture is blue-gray. For young individuals of the Estonian quail is not a character clearly expressed sexual dimorphism. The advantages of Estonian quail are obvious. They are as follows: – Increased egg production. The first eggs of the female are deposited on average for 45 days of life. In a year, one individual brings up to 250 eggs weighing 11-12 grams each. The egg laying intensity reaches its maximum intensity in the first six months of the egg-laying period. During a year, one female of the Estonian quail, with favorable care, lays eggs with a total mass of up to 4 kg. – Increased vitality level. Out of the brood, up to 99% of the quail survives, and the safety of the livestock during the year in the period of active egg laying reaches 92%. – Easy to remove. The level of egg fertilization is up to 93%. Out of 83% of eggs, a quail is produced. The incubation period is short and is only 16-18 days. – High rates of fleshiness of the breed. The live weight of laying hens on the average is 195 grams, and the males are 165 grams, which is 28% higher than the Japanese quail. The weight of the bird’s body is on average 125 gr. According to the taste characteristics of meat, the Estonian domestic breed is not inferior to the breed of Pharaoh. – Fast growth. Their optimal weight quail is reached in a month after the birth. According to the prevalence of the breed, the Estonian home quail legally holds the leading position among other breeds. Especially often it can be found in poultry houses of beginning sparrowhawks, tk. the bird is easy to care for, viable, has high egg production and fleshiness. There is one minor disadvantage in the breeding of Estonian breed. It consumes an average of 8% more food per day than other quails. But this weightless flaw is more than compensated by a mass of merits in the breeding of quails of this breed. That is why the Estonian house-quail breeds are very common in sparrows of Ukraine, Russia and Central Asia.
Estonian domestic quail breed