The prototype of horizontal sunbeds are beehives – decks. The bee nests in them are located in a horizontal position. The bodies of the sun beds have the form of rectangular boxes in which 12 to 24 frames for the nests are suspended. Flasks for bees are usually arranged in the front wall.
Positive features of sunbeds .
It is much easier to take care of bees in them than in multihull hives. Small buildings with their compactness are more convenient for transportation within the site and, when roaming, from one apiary to another. The hulls can be lifted and replaced in places, as in vertical hives it is not necessary, and therefore fewer dead bees.
There is an opportunity to hold in them one main family and one or two small ones.
In beds it is easy to clean the bottoms, and also making them does not require large monetary costs.
Construction of a hive
For the construction of hives, choose softwood: dry fir boards, fir, linden or poplar. For the warming of beehives, some beekeepers make an additional sheathing of their hulls.
Hive bodies can sometimes be divided into two independent compartments with separate flares. The walls are made of wood material by a method in the tongue, and the walls are fastened together with nails.
Upper tapholes are made round, at a distance from the top of the hive of 60mm. If the walls of the hull are long, they are equipped with four flaps, a pair from different sides of the hive: one above, one below. Near each attached board.
The bottom of the hive is made in the form of a removable flap of boards having a thickness of 35-40 mm. At the same time, a landing board is attached to it, which should protrude 50 mm from the bottom. The landing board in some cases is made whole with the bottom.
The hive roof must correspond to the size of the hull. Its height is usually 80 – 90mm. It serves as a container for insulation and fixes the planks of the ceiling. When moving bees, a nomadic grid is placed in it. It serves to ventilate the house and put the upper feeder in it when feeding the bees.
Ceiling. Separate plaques fold in the ceiling, placing them on top of the frame frames or a special purchased extension. Often, instead of the ceiling, canvas pieces are used.
Roof. On top of the hive is equipped with a flat, single-pitched or gable roof. It consists of a frame on which one or more board shields are fixed. The dimensions of the frame must correspond to the upper perimeter of the body area and the overburden or extension.
The roof of the hive is put on either overlapping, or “on the hoodie” It should be light and strong. Some beekeepers mount the roof with the help of loops, so that it opens like a chest. Shields are made out of the edges of the hive body at 5 – 55 mm. The top of the shields is upholstered, or simply covered with metal sheets.
Separating diaphragm – the board is inserted in order to reduce the nest area for the bee family. In a multihull hive, it is made equal to the internal size of the hull.
Intra-rakers feeders are made and used for feeding bees by medical means. In the side feeder 3.5 liters of fodder can be accommodated, and in the upper – from 1 to 3 liters. In the feeding troughs, partition walls are arranged, which divide the area into sections for the passage of bees to food and forage.
Set the beehive hives on the bars at a height of at least 20 cm from the ground. Place for their location should not be open to scorching sunlight.
Disadvantages of hive-lounges
The bee family develops in a horizontal position, which disrupts the physiological and biological needs of bees.
It is not easy to expand the nests with wax frames, with the loss of bees.
In horizontal beds there is insufficient air and gas exchange, which adversely affects the health of bee colonies.
Horizontal hives occupy much more apiary area than vertical multi-hull beehives.
Beehives with tops
They are considered combined.
In spring, the bee sockets expand horizontally until the entire area is filled, then attachments are added to them from above – hulls, which are filled with low frames by deep cells.
Bees store their honey in these buildings. Use extensions in order to separate the honeycomb from the honeycombs in which the brood is located. The use of extensions makes it easier for the beekeeper to work on the selection of honey, and also ensures the production of the highest quality honey.
Hives with extensions are advisable to use where you can remove a large crop of honey, as well as on remote, rarely visited beekeepers apiaries.